Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan Received 6 October 2013; Revised 23 December 2013; Accepted 23 December 2013; Published 26 March 2014Academic Editor: Cristian Toma Copyright © 2014 Yung-Chung Wang et al.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.By increasing the throughput of fluorinated extender units, we can produce multiply fluorinated polyketide products by chemoenzymatic synthesis and target the production of complex structures.Polyketides are a large family of bioactive natural products synthesized by polyketide synthase (PKS) enzyme complexes predominantly from acetate and propionate.The prevailing so-called A spermatogonia are in fact the stem cells.In 1994, the first functional stem cell assay was established based on the formation of repopulating colonies after transplantation in germ cell-depleted host testes, which substantially accelerated the understanding of spermatogenic stem cells.
Here, we show that fluorine can be inserted site-selectively by an engineered polyketide synthase system via a fluorinated monomer that becomes covalently tethered to the enzyme to complete a canonical reaction cycle.
in the field of amphiphilic complex fluids and self-assembled nano-materials is briefly reviewed, and its unique role in exploring the nature of assembled structure in liquid suspension is highlighted.
Spermatogenesis in mice and other mammalians is supported by a robust stem cell system.
Stem cells maintain themselves and continue to produce progeny that will differentiate into sperm over a long period.
The pioneering studies conducted from the 1950s to the 1970s, which were based largely on extensive morphological analyses, have established the fundamentals of mammalian spermatogenesis and its stem cells.